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Burza w porcie na Odrze (o losach kopii Michała Anioła i Andrei Verrocchia)

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Sto lat temu Stettin stawał się drugim co do wielkości portem Niemiec. Miasto miało  odpowiednie do swej rangi kulturalne ambicje: postanowiono – powstanie muzeum, którego architektoniczny kształt powierzono Wilhelmowi Meyer-Schwartau.

Młodzik kontra mieszczanie

Na dyrektorskim stołku zasiada Walter Riezler, przybysz z Monachium, ledwo po trzydziestce.

imgres-19 256 imgres-20Pierwszy dyrektor Muzeum Miejskiego w stolicy Pomorza Zachodniego sprzyja nowatorskim prądom. Marzy mu się utworzenie muzeum nowoczesnego, nastawionego na artystyczne nowinki. Riezler ma przeciwko sobie większość mieszkańców regionu, którzy datkami, darowiznami i zapisami testamentowymi wspierają instytucję. Szczególnie intensywnie iskrzy pomiędzy młodym szefem a tradycjonalistycznie nastawionymi szczecińskimi bonzami. Najwięcej do powiedzenia ma doktor Heindrich Dohrn, przyrodnik, humanista i fan sztuki. 220px-Dohrn zbc.ksiaznica.szczecin.pl_1896Dla niego, podobnie jak dla konserwatywnych notabli, absolutny top ludzkich osiągnięć stanowi sztuka klasyczna. Stąd pomysł, żeby nowe muzeum wyposażyć w kopie słynnych rzeźb.

I tak dzięki hojności lokalnych mecenasów sztuki Stettin wzbogacił się o największy w Europie zestaw replik antycznych posągów – około 100 obiektów, rewelacja!

Wykonanie duplikatów w brązie zlecono warsztatom w Rzymie i Neapolu. Dohrn, główny darczyńca, zamierzał dołączyć do posągów hellenistycznych także repliki arcydzieł Odrodzenia. Na początek powstały dwie: konny pomnik kondotiera Colleoniego dłuta Andrei del Verrocchio i marmurowy „Mojżesz” Michała Anioła. Na tym seria „renesansowa” się zakończyła.

Po śmierci Dohrna (1913) dyrektor Reizler śmielej już lansował swoich faworytów, np. zakupił obraz Vincenta van Gogha.

Riezler kierował muzeum przez dwie dekady, do momentu kiedy uznany za piewcę „sztuki zdegenerowanej”

imgres-23 imgres-21 imgres-22 imgres-19 imgres-20 Oto najwyższe władze na wystawie Sztuki zdegenerowanej w Monachium. Rok 1937.

został pozbawiony stanowisku. Kolekcja niemieckich ekspresjonistów, fowistów i innych twórców niezgodnych z wizją narodowych socjalistów została rozproszona po Niemczech i… słuch po niej zaginął.

 

Eskalacja nienawiści

Ostatnie lata wojny, rok 1943, 1944. Najpierw alianci, potem Armia Czerwona przeobrażają Wielkie Miasto Stettin w gigantyczne morze ruin. Z dawnych obiektów przemysłowych ocalało ledwie 10 procent, zaś z całej zabudowy przetrwała jedna trzecia. Na tym nie koniec dramatu miasta. Ci, którzy je budowali i przeżyli, muszą się wynieść. Ich miejsce zajmują przybysze ze Wschodu, także wysiedleńcy. Symbolem tych wielokierunkowych migracji były walizki. Tanie, kartonowe i poobijane. Teraz są eksponatami Muzeum Historii Szczecina.

imgres-19 imgres-21 imgres-20 Tak dziś wygląda były rathaus – obecne Muzeum Historii Szczecina

Jedni z takim skromnym bagażem opuszczali na zawsze domy rodzinne, inni, równie ubogo wyposażeni, zaludniali pustostany.

Porozumienie uniemożliwiała wzajemna nienawiść, której wymownym przykładem jest „charakterystyka” niemieckiej kobiety – po czym ją poznać? Po brzydkiej, tępej twarzy; szerokich biodrach i po tym, że zamiast kapelusza nosi na ulicy chustkę. Ten opis towarzyszył fotoreportażowi ze zrujnowanego miasta w szczecińskiej gazecie z 1945 roku.

W tym też czasie zaczyna się wywózka dzieł z różnych muzealnych placówek do Polski Centralnej. Szczecińska instytucja zostaje przemianowana na Muzeum Pomorza Zachodniego. Ma koncentrować się na sztuce współczesnej regionu, plus przykłady XIX-wiecznej sztuki polskiej. Ślady kultury poniemieckiej są niemile widziane.

Tymczasem w Warszawie podjęta zostaje decyzja o utworzenia Centralnego Muzeum Sztuki Starożytnej. Profesor Stanisław Lorenz (na zdjęciach poniżej)imgres-22 imgres-19 imgres-23

zwraca się do szefów szczecińskiego muzeum o dwuletni depozyt. Wspaniałe brązowe kopie antycznych rzeźb tudzież marmurowy Mojżesz jadą do stolicy. W zamian Pomorze ma dostać obiekty sztuki polskiej od połowy XIX wieku do współczesności. Warszawa coś tam w zamian kapnęła, by w kolejnych latach sukcesywnie odbierać. A kolekcja brązowych posągów jakoś na trwałe wrosła w stołeczny pejzaż: brązy stanęły przed fasadą MNW, kopie kondotiera i Mojżesza zadomowiły się na warszawskiej Akademii Sztuk Pięknych. Za kadencji profesora Władysława Filipowiaka (kierował MNS od 1955 roku) podjęto starania o zwrot „depozytu”. Opornie szło, oj opornie.

Hellenistyczne repliki zamówione przez Dohrna wróciły nad Odrę najwcześniej, bo w połowie lat 90. W 2002 roku dogadano się w sprawie Colleoniego: wykonano… kopię z kopii. Za odlanie kolejnej repliki Szczecin zapłacił 300 tys. zł. Kondotier nie wrócił już do Sali kopułowej muzeum, gdzie stał pierwotnie.

Jest na placu Lotników.imgres-21 imgres-7 imgres-9 imgres-10 z10468345Q,Pomnik-kondotiera-Bartolomea-Colleoniego-na-dziedzincu imgres-8 imgres-6 imgres-11 imgres-5Oto ten sam – a jednak inny Colleoni: w Wenecji (oryginał), na dziedzińcu warszawskiej ASP i na placu Lotników w Szczecinie. Czarno-biale zdjęcie pokazuje usytuowanie rzeźby przed wojną, w Sali kopułowej szczecińskiego muzeum.

„Wygryzł” go Teatr Współczesny, od 1976 roku zadomowiony pod muzealnym dachem.

Najdłużej trwała walka o Mojżesza. Korzystny dla Szczecina finał nastąpił dopiero w czerwcu 2014 roku. Nam, wychowankom ASP, pozostaje czekać na kolejną kopię kopii. A na razie – dla porównania oryginał z Rzymu, z Bazyliki

Swiętego Piotra – i nasz warszawski, akademicki, przy schodach i automacie do coli.  .imgres-18 imgres-12 imgres-3 imgres-17 2014-06-09_1402322059_11 imgres-20 images-2 images-3 images-1 images imgres-14 imgres-15 imgres-13 Ale to przeszłość – teraz Mojżesza konserwują w Szczecinie, gdzie wrócił w czerwcu 2014.

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